Over the past two weeks, the students have been learning about three-dimensional modeling. After reviewing the different characteristics and different types of two-dimensional shapes, they began exploring three-dimensional objects. Many of the students struggle with visualization, especially involving three-dimensional objects, so they spent some extra time on this concept to help them visualize the relationship between these two classes of objects (i.e. two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional objects). First, the students had to name all the two-dimensional shapes they could see in different three-dimensional objects. Then, they observed cross-sections of all the three-dimensional objects and identified each cross-section as a two-dimensional shape. Finally, they considered ways of creating three-dimensional objects other than using a geometric net. For example, when asked how to construct a cone, most of them suggested a circular base and a sector of a circle. Using circles of different sizes, each with a slightly smaller radius than the next, the students observed the teacher place the circle with the largest base on the table. Then, the teacher stacked the circles with successively smaller radii. By time the students saw the fifth circle placed on top, they already suspected that the stack of circles was forming a cone.

Before moving on to the next concept, it was imperative that the students were able to visualize three-dimensional objects and identify two-dimensional shapes in the faces and the cross-sections of three-dimensional objects. This particular skill addresses Common Core State Standard Geometric Measurement and Dimension (G-GMD) 4, “Identify the shapes of two-dimensional cross-sections of three-dimensional objects, and identify three-dimensional objects generated by rotations of two-dimensional objects” (California Department of Education, 2013, p. 74). A test was created (as a summative assessment) that would assess the students’ ability to identify two-dimensional shapes that were represented by three-dimensional objects. The test included fifteen different three-dimensional objects that the students have seen before and have worked with on numerous occasions during the first semester. The test also included three sets of adaptations.

The first set of adaptations was designed to address the learning needs of for English Language Learners, like *Student A*. *Student A* is a 9th grade student at Orion International Academy. Her family arrived in the United States from Mexico when she was 8 years old. She is bilingual in Spanish and English. She is the oldest of three siblings. Her parents own their own business and work evenings. She is responsible for helping her two younger siblings with their homework. *Student A* speaks only Spanish at home and her parents depend on her to translate everything. Her CELDT results placed her at intermediate in speaking and listening and early intermediate in reading and writing. She struggles when she reads the mathematics textbook and tends to look confused when I am explaining a concept with too much mathematical jargon. Her STAR test results placed her Below Basic in mathematics and ELA. Aside from school, *Student A* enjoys playing sports, especially soccer and is planning to try out for the girls’ soccer team. She has very few friends at the school, mostly because the other students complain that she can be a little dominant.

Based on *Student A*’s needs, two different adaptations were implemented. First, the directions were read aloud, with clarification provided for the meaning of “indicate” and “represented.” Examples were given for “two-dimensional shapes” and “three-dimensional objects” to help differentiate between the two concepts. The difference between “two-dimensional” and “three-dimensional” is that “three-dimensional” implies an additional dimension of physical space, providing depth. This is also implied in the use of “shape” and “object.” For an English Language Learner, this subtle difference may cause confusion and frustration in responding to the questions. Therefore, it felt necessary to reiterate that semantic difference and clarify any misunderstanding. Second, English Language Learners were provided with a supplementary piece of paper that included different two-dimensional shapes and their respective names. One of the areas with which *Student A* seemed to struggle was differentiating between the use of “triangle” and “rectangle.” Both words are similar in their phonology and their morphology. For example, both words end with the morpheme “angle” and possess the letters “t” and “r” in the first syllable.

On her assessment, *Student A* scored 20 points out of a possible 25 points, earning her an 80%. Not only did she raise her overall grade in the class from a 70% to a 74%, but she also performed above the class average of 72%. Even though two-dimensional shapes were reviewed with the class prior to the test and *Student A* was provided with a supplementary sheet that included illustrations of two-dimensional shapes and their respective names, she used “triangle” and “rectangle” incorrectly for three responses. Interestingly, the first three questions involve pyramids, all three containing triangular sides, but each with a different base. *Student A* correctly indicated that triangles are represented in all three pyramids. She was also able to correctly indicate the two-dimensional shapes used as bases in the second and third question, but in the first question, which had a triangular base, she referred to the base as a “rectangle.” After reflecting on *Student A*’s responses, it seems that three of her responses were directly related to her English language development. Instead of requiring *Student A*, an English Language Learner, to have to write her response, it could have been more beneficial to allow her to draw the two-dimensional shapes that were represented by the given three-dimensional objects. Thus, if she wrote “rectangle,” but drew a triangle and understood it to be a triangle, then her error would be linguistic and not conceptual.

The second set of adaptations was designed to address the learning needs of students identified with special needs, like *Student B*. *Student B* is a 9th grade student at Orion International Academy. She has been diagnosed with the dyslexia and requires extra time on assignments and assessments. In fact, her California English Language Development Test (CELDT) results placed her at early intermediate in reading and writing. Her STAR test scores have always placed her at the Basic level in mathematics. She performs well on her homework and tests when it only involves calculations. When there are word problems or multi-step directions, she struggles and gets frustrated. She has very few friends and complains that the students, who are her friends, are not always nice to her. In class, she usually works alone. When she does work in groups, she applies herself only when it involves mathematical calculations or drawing. She enjoys art and tends to draw during class and needs to be constantly re-engaged by the teacher. *Student B* is good at dance and socializes with her friends, but has never tried out for any of the school’s sports teams.

*Student B* was provided the same adaptations as *Student A*, plus an additional adaptation. It was requested by the school that *Student B* receive extra time to complete all assignments and assessments. The other students were allowed 20 minutes to complete the assessment. *Student B* was allowed an extra 20 minutes (for a total of 40 minutes) to complete the assessment. These extra 20 minutes helped her significantly. By the end of the first 20 minutes, she had only completed the first eight questions. She still had almost half of the test to complete.

On this assessment, *Student B* scored a 14 out of 25, earning her a 56%, 16% lower than the class average of 72%. After this assessment, her grade for the class lowered from a 75% to a 72%. After analyzing *Student B*’s incorrect responses, many of them were found to be random and without any reference. It was also noticed that many of her incorrect responses were written outside of the provided response box. It seems as if *Student B* had started writing random names of two-dimensional shapes, hoping that she would not miss identifying any of them. In retrospect, it could have been more beneficial to *Student B* if she was asked to only indicate one of the two-dimensional shapes represented by the given three-dimensional objects. In fact, every two-dimensional shape that she listed first in the response boxes was a correct response. By limiting *Student B* to only indicating one of the two-dimensional shapes represented by each of the three-dimensional objects, it would have reduced the level of mental processing necessary for visualizing three-dimensional objects.

The third set of adaptations was designed to address the learning needs of students identified as gifted, like *Student C*. *Student C* is a 9th grade student at Orion International Academy. She is heavily involved in afterschool sports and clubs. She played on this year’s volleyball team and recently made it on the school’s basketball team. When she is not playing sports, she writes articles for the school newspaper and is treasurer for the student council. She also volunteers her time tutoring other students after school. Her parents are actively involved in the PTA and regularly volunteer their time at school events. Her STAR test results place her in Advanced in both math and ELA. She completes all of her homework on time and usually scores in the top percent on all tests and quizzes. She is always engaged and actively participates in class. During group work, *Student C* is usually taking the lead and assigning tasks to everyone in the group.

In addition to the directions on the assessment, *Student C* was also asked to describe each two-dimensional shape as specifically as she can, using mathematical vocabulary to classify the shapes. For example, if one of the faces of a three-dimensional object had a triangle with all three sides of equal length, *Student C* would need to specify the triangle as an “equilateral triangle.” Usually, *Student C* is finished with an assessment before the other students in class. Adding this extra requirement to the directions for *Student C* extended the time she used to complete the assessment to the full 20 minutes. On this particular assessment, *Student C* scored a 25 out of 25, earning her a 100%, 28% higher than the class average of 72%. After this assessment, her grade for the class increased from a 98% to a 99%.

Overall, the class average for this assessment was a 72% or 18 correct solutions out of a possible 25. Most of the students (approximately 90% of the students) experienced difficulty with the three-dimensional objects that include pentagons and hexagons (see questions #3, 8, 9, 10, and 13). Other areas that students (approximately 50% of the students) experienced difficulty were with the tetrahedron (see question #1) and the octahedron (see question #7). Even in class, many students found these two objects confusing

**References**

California Department for Education (2013). *California Common Core State Standards, Mathematics. *Retrieved from: http://www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/documents/ccssmathstandardaug2013.pdf

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